An ecological alliance against air pollution and cardiovascular disease


Published: 22 March 2022
Abstract Views: 1421
PDF: 100
Publisher's note
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

Authors

This narrative review article summarizes the strong available evidence that casually links indoor and outdoor air pollution to cardiovascular disease. It also discusses as a possible approach to mitigate this ubiquitous risk factor the use in the household of ornamental potted plants, and their variable degree of effectiveness for the removal of different indoor pollutants such as volatile organic compounds (formaldehyde, benzene, toluene, xylene). Thus, the choice of the plants should be tailored to the types and concentrations of the pollutants present in each household. Outdoor air is less polluted than indoor air in terms of concentrations of the gaseous (NO2) and particulate components (PM10, PM2.5, PM0.1), but it does hamper to a higher extent health because a large fraction of the population is inevitably exposed at the time of breezing. Being cognizant of the difficulties currently encountered in the attempts to mitigate the major sources of ambient air pollution (vehicle traffic and domestic heating) a strategy based upon a massive increase of green spaces in urban areas has been shown not only to positively mitigate air pollution but also improve life expectancy, general health and resilience.


Dominici F, Peng RD, Bell ML, et al. Fine particulate air pollution and hospital admission for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. JAMA 2006;295:1127-34. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.295.10.1127

Brook RD, Rajagopalan S, Pope CA 3rd, et al. Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease: An update to the scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation 2010;121:2331-78. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0b013e3181dbece1

Franchini M, Mannucci PM. Thrombogenicity and cardiovascular effects of ambient air pollution. Blood. 2011;118:2405-12. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1182/blood-2011-04-343111

Newby DE, Mannucci PM, Tell GS, et al; ESC Heart Failure Association. Expert position paper on air pollution and cardiovascular disease. Eur Heart J 2015;36:83-93. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehu458

Mannucci PM, Harari S, Franchini M. Novel evidence for a greater burden of ambient air pollution on cardiovascular disease. Haematologica 2019;104:2349-57. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2019.225086

GBD 2019 Risk Factors Collaborators. Global burden of 87 risk factors in 204 countries and territories, 1990-2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. Lancet 2020;396:1223-49. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30752-2

WHO. Ambient air pollution: A global assessment of exposure and burden of disease. Available from: www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789241511353. Last access February 2022.

Burnett R, Chen H, Szyszkowicz M, et al. Global estimates of mortality associated with long-term exposure to outdoor fine particulate matter. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018;115:9592-7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1289/isesisee.2018.S02.04.33

Lelieveld J, Klingmüller K, Pozzer A, et al. Cardiovascular disease burden from ambient air pollution in Europe reassessed using novel hazard ratio functions. Eur Heart J 2019;40:1590-6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehz135

Rajagopalan S, Landrigan PJ. Pollution and the heart. N Engl J Med 2021;385:1881-92. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra2030281

Hoek G, Krishnan RM, Beelen R, et al. Long-term air pollution exposure and cardio- respiratory mortality: a review. Environ Health 2001;12:43. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-069X-12-43

Zhao B, Johnston FH, Salimi F, et al. Short-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a nationwide case-crossover study in Japan. Lancet Planet Health 2020;4:e15-23. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2542-5196(19)30262-1

Münzel T, Sørensen M, Gori T, et al. Environmental stressors and cardio-metabolic disease: part II-mechanistic insights. Eur Heart J 2017;38:557-64. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehw294

Münzel T, Gori T, Al-Kindi S, et al. Effects of gaseous and solid constituents of air pollution on endothelial function. Eur Heart J 2018;39:3543-50. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehy481

Mannucci PM, Ancona C. Noise and air pollution as triggers of hypertension. Eur Heart J 2021;42:2085-7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab104

Newman JD, Bhatt DL, Rajagopalan S, et al. Cardiopulmonary Impact of Particulate Air Pollution in High-Risk Populations: JACC State-of-the-Art Review. J Am Coll Cardiol 2020;76:2878-94. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2020.10.020

Nowak DJ, Crane DE, Stevens JC. Air pollution removal by urban trees and shrubs in the United States. Urban Forestry Urban Greening 2006;4:115-23. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2006.01.007

Yang DS, Pennisi SV, Son K-C, Kays SJ. Screening indoor plants for volatile organic pollutant remval efficiency. HortScience 2009;44:1377-81: DOI: https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.44.5.1377

Dela Cruz M, Christensen JH, Thomsen JD, Müller R. Can ornamental potted plants remove volatile organic compounds from indoor air? A review. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2014;21:13909-28. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-3240-x

Ohlwein S, Kappeler R, Kutlar Joss M, et al. Health effects of ultrafine particles: a systematic literature review update of epidemiological evidence. Int J Public Health 2019;64:547-59. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00038-019-01202-7

Schraufnagel DE. The health effects of ultrafine particles. Exp Mol Med. 2020;52:311-7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s12276-020-0403-3

Mannucci PM. Air pollution levels and cardiovascular health: low is not enough. Eur J Prev Cardiol 2017;24:1851-3. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/2047487317719356

Mannucci PM. Traffic-related air pollution and the coronavirus pandemia: shadows and lights. Eur J Prev Cardiol 2020:2047487320928451. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/2047487320928451

Chen C, Park T, Wang X, et al. China and India lead in greening of the world through land-use management. Nat Sustain 2019;2:122-9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41893-019-0220-7

Franchini M, Mannucci PM. Mitigation of air pollution by greenness: a narrative review. Eur J Intern Med 2018;55:1-5. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2018.06.021

Twohig-Bennett C, Jones A. The health benefits of the great outdoors: A systematic review and meta-analysis of greenspace exposure and health outcomes. Environ Res 2018;166:628-37. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2018.06.030

Yitshak-Sade M, James P, Kloog I, et al. Neighborhood greenness attenuates the adverse effect of PM2.5 on cardiovascular mortality in neighborhoods of lower socioeconomic status. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019;16:814. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16050814

James P, Hart JE, Banay RF, Laden F. Exposure to greenness and mortality in a nationwide prospective cohort study of women. Environ Health Perspect 2016;124:1344-52. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510363

Nowak DJ, Crane DE, Stevens JC. Air pollution removal by urban trees and shrubs in the United States. Urban Forestry Urban Greening 2006;4:115-23. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2006.01.007

Baró F, Chaparro L, Gómez-Baggethun E, et al. Contribution of ecosystem services to air quality and climate change mitigation policies: the case of urban forests in Barcelona, Spain. Ambio 2014;43:466-79. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-014-0507-x

University of Edinburgh. Available from: www.ed.ac.uk. Last access February 2022

Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Khreis H. Car free cities: pathway to healthy urban living. Environ Int 2016;94:251-62. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2016.05.032

Mannucci, P. M. (2022). An ecological alliance against air pollution and cardiovascular disease. Bleeding, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 1(1). https://doi.org/10.4081/btvb.2022.21

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Citations